At Starlink Development we implement sensors with monitoring capabilities. It is important to protect our clients and their valuables from the damage that temperature change can do. Regardless of consumer needs for health, frozen pipes, allergies or disabled people, sensors with monitoring can alert and help avoid unnecessary concerns.
A lot of disabled people are dependent on someone. As Alain Louchez says:
“Clearly, IoT technologies are very well suited for people who have, let’s say, challenges in terms of mobility or independence.”
It obviously shows that the technology can bring freedom and independence for people who have disabilities, however there is still a lack of potential awareness among people.
There are different types of sensors and monitoring options available, such as:
Tracking history for humidity and temperature
Remote temperature sensor, it brings back to the optimal temperature
Heat and cold sensors that work wirelessly, installation is wire-free, and it works via internet service
Heat and cold sensors that are hard-wired, and it is run on electricity
Pre-programmed or pre-set time or specific temperature range
Air pollution, humidity, smoke, gas and ozone sensor
According to research done by Public Health England, the optimal room temperature during the day and night is 18°C (65F) for healthy people from 1 to 64 years and over. It is important to have a correct set temperature to avoid allergies and illnesses. Temperature monitoring can also be applied to monitor human body temperature and specific items.
With reference to the paper “An overview of the Internet of Things for people with disabilities,” the journal explains based on (World Health Survey and Global Burden of Disease) that about 15% of the world’s population including children are living with a disability. This survey shows a significant number of people that are in need of permanent monitoring and access to monitor and control its house from the application.
Due to mobility restrictions, disabled people have a lack of movement options, thus properly set up for the smart device is crucial. It is researched and explained that IoT for the smart home would help consumers help in daily tasks, especially people with disabilities. Usually, the programmable thermostat is integrated into a centralized control system. It can be accessible for monitoring using different devices, but still, there is a lack of support in communication and information where disabled people are dependent on other people.
Reasons for having smart devices (sensors) with data collection options and further data investigation (machine learning) are decisive to avoid mentioned health problems. The study showed that approximately 12.7 million people in the UK have a history of chronic respiratory conditions, COPD, including asthma and other respiratory-related diseases. As a result, high numbers of people die from lung diseases.
According to the research, “Effect of temperature on lung function and symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease” it shows that room temperature is an important aspect of the lung to function properly. In other words, the research showed that low room temperature was related to reduced lung function which may contribute to further illness or disease. This suggests that many people do not pay attention to the current room temperature due to the lack of awareness of possible causes and temperature IoT monitoring abilities. To avoid these causes different microcontroller sensors, such as air pollution, smoke, temperature, humidity, ozone, and gas can solve problems.
A proposal by Mohamed Abd El-Latif Mowad, where he was doing a project in home automation, including humidity and temperature monitoring using sensors. The project used ‘Microcontroller MIKRO C software’ and active/passive sensors. For temperature measurements ‘LM35’ sensor was used. Due to a low-cost sensor, it has low self-heating capability, and it operates from 4 to 30v. To control the sensor as shown in Figure 5 a microcontroller (PIC16F877) was used. The microcontroller establishes communication with Bluetooth using TX and RX pins, sending commands to the smartphone. In this project, the software and function were run by Arduino microcontroller and the author mentioned that the project will involve different sensors.
Figure 5: PIC16F877 – microcontroller (Source: www.microchip.com, 2017)
An Arduino is a simple board that can run one program at a time, where a Raspberry PI is a small computer (System on a chip) for general purpose and can run multiple programs at a time. Depending on the consumer needs if only one function is planned to be run then the Arduino microcontroller would suit the best. Whereas if the consumer requires data being collected and different sensors connected, then the Raspberry PI microcontroller would be the most suitable.
Another example of the project called “Wearable Wireless Sensors for Chronic Respiratory Disease Monitoring” where both Electrical and Computer engineering departments presented a wearable sensor system that enables data monitoring and correlation to understand chronic respiratory conditions. The device measures ambient temperature, humidity, and ozone concentration. For his project, the creators used (MICS2614) metal oxide methodology ozone sensor.
As stated in the paper, this sensor has a slow response time thus it provides lower sampling rates. Temperature and humidity data were measured by the sensor (SI7023). In terms of power consumption, it only takes 0.45 mW and it divides the power output between humidity and temperature. A similar sampling rate was applied for temperature, humidity and ozone sensing. The authors have mentioned that the product can last about 36 hours without the depletion of a battery. It is obvious that with all the above-mentioned sensors it is necessary to implement a device that will last without consumer interaction, for example: changing battery, calibration and data collection.
Figure 6: Metal oxide sensor on the left and temperature and humidity sensor on the right side (Source: silabs.com, 2015)
In the future health care will be monitored remotely and records of data maintained by using sensors. Sensors are easy to implement and are shown that in the next decade consumers will deal with health problems from home with help from the technology.